UNESCO World Heritages of Korea
UNESCO World Heritage refers to sites registered on the World Heritage List. In November 1972, UNESCO adopted the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" in the General Conference during its seventeenth session. Under the Convention, the World Heritage committee established a World Heritage List that includes cultural and natural heritage with outstanding value whose conservation is recognized to be in the interest of all humanity.
As of November 2018, Korea has twelve cultural heritage sites and one natural heritage site. Apart from this, UNESCO also has separate programs called "Intangible Heritage of Humanity" and "Memory of the World." In Korea, there are twenty and sixteen of them respectively.
The historical background of Korea's Cultural Heritage Sites is diverse, encompassing the history of Korea from ancient times (Dolmen sites) to the Joseon Dynasty. The sites embody a wide variety of values from tidy and neat artistic spirit to scientific rationality as witnessed in the traditional architecture of royal palaces or temples.
A total of twelve Korean cultural sites are registered on the list of World Cultural Heritage, including Jongmyo Shrine (1995); Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks (1995); Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple (1995); Hwaseong Fortress (1997); Changdeokgung Palace Complex (1997); Gyeongju Historic Areas (2000); Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites (2000); Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty (2009); Historic Villages of Korea: Hahoe and Yangdong (2010); Namhansanseong Fortress (2014); Baekje Historic Areas (2015); and Sansa, Buddhist Mountain Monasteries in Korea (2018).
UNESCO chooses World Natural Heritage Sites based on an objective evaluation of historic and academic worth, and then assists in ensuring their preservation.
The volcanic island of Jeju has an outstandingly beautiful natural environment that is significant for its geological features and ecological value. In 2007, Jeju Island was listed as a UNESCO Natural Heritage Site under the name of "Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes." This includes Hallasan Natural Reserve, the Geomunoreum Lave Tube System and Seongsan Ilchulbong Peak.
An international assessment committee appointed by the UNESCO Secretary General reviews the list of World Intangible Heritage of Humanity every two years with the mission of safeguarding and protecting such intangible heritages as language, culture, music, dance, games, myths, rituals, customs and handicrafts.
A total of twenty examples of Korean intangible heritage are on the list, including: Royal Ancestral Ritual in the Jongmyo Shrine and its Music (2001); Pansori Epic Chant (2003); Gangneung Danoje Festival (2005); Ganggangsullae Dance (2009); Namsadang-nori Performance (2009); Yeongsanjae Buddhist Ritual (2009); Jeju Chilmeoridang-yeongdeung-gut Shaman Ritual (2009); the Cheoyongmu Dance (2009); Gagok, lyric song cycles accompanied by an orchestra (2010); Falconry, a living human heritage (2010); Daemokjang, traditional wooden architecture (2010); Weaving of Mosi (fine ramie) in the Hansan region (2011); Taekkyeon, a traditional Korean martial art (2011), Jultagi, tightrope walking (2011); Arirang, lyrical folk song in the Republic of Korea (2012); Kimjang, making and sharing kimchi (2013); Nongak, Community band music, dance and rituals in the Republic of Korea (2014); Juldarigi, traditional ritual wishing for a good harvest, a tug-of-war game (2015); Culture of Jeju Haenyeo, women divers of Jeju Island (2016); and Ssireum, traditional Korean wrestling (2018).
Memory of the World Register was launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity. The list includes written work, maps, musical scores, films, and photographs.
Korean documents inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register include Hunminjeongeum Manuscript(1997); The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty (1997); Seungjeongwon Ilgi, the Diaries of the Royal Secretariat (2001); Buljo Jikji Simche Yojeol, the Second Volume of "Anthology of Great Buddhist Priests' Zen Teachings" (2001); Printing Woodblocks of the Tripitaka Koreana and Miscellaneous Buddhist Scriptures (2007); Uigwe, the Royal Protocols of the Joseon Dynasty (2007); Donguibogam, Principles and Practice of Eastern Medicine (2009); Ilseongnok: Records of Daily Reflections (2011); Human Rights Documentary Heritage 1980 Archives for the May 18th Democratic Uprising against Military Regime, in Gwangju, Republic of Korea (2011); Nanjung Ilgi: War Diary of Admiral Yi Sun-sin (2013); Archives of Saemaul Undong (New Community Movement) (2013); Confucian Printing Woodblocks in Korea (2015); The Archives of the KBS Special Live Broadcast “Finding Dispersed Families” (2015); Royal Seal and Investiture Book Collection of the Joseon Dynasty (2017); Archives of the National Debt Redeption Momement (2017); and Documents on Joseon Tongsinsa: The History of Peace Building and Cultural Exchanges between Korea and Japan from 17th to 19th Century (2017).
This page was last updated on April 12, 2019, and therefore information may differ from what is presented here.